Citrobacter freundii infection in two captive Australian king parrots (Alisterus scapularis)
An adult and a juvenile male Australian king parrot (Alisterus scapularis) were found dead in their facilities in a private aviary in June 2010 without premonitory clinical signs before death. Gross examinations showed enlarged livers, enlarged spleens with petechiae, distended proventriculi, and distended and haemorrhagic intestinal tracts. Unilateral pneumonia and enlarged kidneys were also observed in the adult parrot. Tissue samples from the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, proventriculus and intestine were analysed using real-time polymerase chain reaction, histopathological, and bacteriological studies. Citrobacter freundii was isolated from several organs in the two parrots. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of a C. freundii infection causing lesions and sudden death in Psittaciformes.
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